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Vin siden bronze-alderen dvs. i 3000 år.
Besat skiftende sydfra, øst-nord-fra. Dvs. barbarer, germanere, romere, maurere, fønikere, spaniere og franskmænd. Alle har sat spor.
Klemt inde og isoleret fra resten af europa af ærkefjenden Spanien.
Handel blomstrede fra 1200.
Opdagelsesrejsende fra 1400 med Henrik Søfareren.
Douro-vinene kom ned til Porto.
Stor samhandel med englænderne. De fik stor indflydelse på specielt portvinproduktionen.
1756 blev et vinkooperativ dannet af Douro-vinbønder. Bl.a. lavede de faste grænser i Douro – verdens første vinregion med faste grænser.
Slut 1800-tallet ramt af vinlus. Stokke i sandjord lige nord for Lissabon ikke ramt. Blev plantet i bunden af gravede sandhuller – 2 – 4 m dybe – på den ler der var der.
Begyndelsen af 1900-tallet politisk kaos. Dog Salazar 1926 – 1968 interesse for vinkvalitet – lavede vinkooperativer – der dog havde den effekt at der ikke rigtig var nogen konkurrence. Efterfølgeren Caetano blev afsat ved revolution 1974. Gav politisk ro – og konkurrencen givet fri.
1986 medlem af EU – og så større muligheder for at opstrukturere og modernisere.
Portugal er 950 km langt og 220 km bredt og der bor ca. 10 mill pers.
Der findes mere end 500 forskellige druesorter. 95% af disse findes ikke i resten af verden.
Det land i verden med størst vinproduktion pr. indbygger.
Verdens største bestand af kork-egetræer.
Vinho Verde is the biggest DOC of Portugal, up in the cool, rainy, verdant north west. The vines grow in fertile, granite soils along rivers that flow from the mountains of the east to burst out into the ocean between golden surfing beaches.
The outer boundaries of both the “Vinho Regional” Minho and DOC Vinho Verde are the same, stretching from the River Minho in the north, which forms Portugal’s border with Spain, as far down the coast as the city of Porto (Oporto), but inland extending a further 30km south of the river Douro.
Cool, wet weather always makes ripening more difficult, but the climatic problems were long compounded in the region by the tradition of training vines along pergolas on the edges of fields, and sometimes up trees, in order to gain space and free up the centre of fields for other crops.
There are many smallholdings (many are really small), and grapes are still often trained in this way, but modern vineyards, and certainly the vineyards of major estates, are now low-trained on wires, giving better exposure to the limited sun, and better ripening.
Vinho Verde is still distinguished by its high acidity. Flavour depends on the grape varieties used - floral Loureiro, steely Trajadura, mineral Arinto (known here as Pedernã), creamy and mineral Avesso, and the fine, mineral, subtly fragrant Alvarinho. Azal Branco is hard to ripen and declining in popularity, and in any case tends to get blended with more aromatic grapes. Most white Vinho Verde can be relied upon to be light, crisp and aromatic, often with a light prickle of fizz, sometimes with a touch of sweetness.
The fine Alvarinho grape rules around the towns of Melgaço and Monção in the north, along the Minho river. The climate here is warmer and drier, the maritime influence partially blocked by hills, and the combination of grape and climate makes for richer, fuller, subtly complex wines, made dry and totally still.
The DOC Vinho Verde has also permitted fully sparkling wines since 1999 – a growing and promising venture. And there is a lot of red Vinho Verde, too - dark, high in acidity, low in alcohol, made principally from the late-ripening, red-fleshed Vinhão grape.
There are nine sub-regions to the DOC, named after rivers or towns: Monção, Melgaço, Lima, Basto, Cávado, Ave, Amarante, Baião, Sousa and Paiva.
In the remote north east of Portugal, cut off from the coast by a series of mountain ranges, Trás-os-Montes is wild, high country, its soils poor and unproductive, granitic with here and there the odd patch of schist. The extreme continental climate brings long, hot summers followed by long, icy winters.
The region is divided into three sub-zones, Chaves, Valpaços and Planalto Mirandês, the first two in the centre of the region, while Planalto Mirandês is on the plateau of the Serra do Mogadouro in the south east, bordering on Spain.
The wines are a product of the high altitude and extreme climate, reds made from Bastardo, Marufo, Tinta Roriz, Touriga Franca, Touriga Nacional and Trincadeira (Tinta Amarela), whites from Côdega do Larinho, Fernão Pires, Gouveio, Malvasia Fina, Rabigato, Síria (Côdega) and Viosinho.
Long famous as the source of port wine, the Douro is now also renowned for its fine, rich unfortified wines, both red and white.
This is one of the wildest, most mountainous and rugged wine regions of Portugal, cut through in deep twists and turns by the River Douro. Defying gravity on the steep slopes along the banks of the river and its tributaries, the vines are planted in poor, schistous soils.
Man has engraved his own contours here – in the centre of the region, the historic, narrow, stone-walled vine terraces have been named a UNESCO World Heritage Site, while elsewhere, modern terraces are wider, buttressed by steep banks of earth.
The wine region follows the course of the river down from the Spanish border to a point near the town of Mesão Frio, about 90km up-river from the city of Porto (Oporto). Here the Serra do Marão rises up, protecting the region from the influence of the Atlantic Ocean.
Rain falls mainly on the western side of the Marão range, and to a certain extent in the western end of the Douro wine region, but dwindle further up-river, and by the Spanish border conditions are almost desert-like.
The Douro region is divided into three sub-regions: from west to east the Baixo Corgo, Cima Corgo and Douro Superior. The fertile, cooler, rainier Baixo Corgo, closest to the Serra do Marão, is the sub region with the most vineyards.
The Cima Corgo, including the towns of Pinhão, São João da Pesqueira and Tua, is the heartland of fine port production, also the source of many of today’s fine unfortified wines. The Douro Superior, very cold in winter, infernally hot in summer, is the biggest of the sub-regions (by no means all planted but much planting is underway).
The Douro has a huge selection of local grape varieties, and many vineyards of impressive, gnarled old vines that give small yields of rich, complex wine, whether for port or for unfortified wines. Dozens of different grape varieties may be mixed together in these old vineyards. In modern vineyards, vines are planted separately, and five grapes have been declared the top choice for port: Tinta Roriz, Touriga Franca, Touriga Nacional, Tinta Barroca and Tinto Cão.
Plantations of the red-juiced, high-acid Sousão, as known as Vinhão elsewhere, have increased recently. Another black grape much planted in older vineyards is Tinta Amarela (as known as Trincadeira). Amongst whites, notable grapes are Gouveio, Malvasia Fina, Moscatel, Rabigato and Viosinho. Some of these, from old, mixed-variety vineyards at high altitudes, are being used for a new generation of dry white wines.
Surrounded on all sides by mountains, the Dão region is protected both from the direct influence of the continental climate, and from the chill and rains from the ocean.
This is high country, rising from 200 metres above sea level at its lowest spots to 1,000 metres in the Serra da Estrela, the high mountain range to the south and east of the region. High altitude makes for cool nights, slower ripening, good acidity and aroma, and the potential for great elegance in the wines, both red and white.
Dão wines can usually age well. Vineyards, often very small patches of vines, are scattered at various altitudes amidst pine forests. Soils are very poor and granitic, with some schist to the south-west. For red wines, Touriga Nacional and Alfrocheiro perform very well here, with the help of Tinta Roriz (also Known as Aragonez, or, in Spain, Tempranillo), along with the traditional Jaen, Baga, Bastardo and Tinta Pinheira.
Star white grape is the Encruzado, making styles ranging from light, fresh whites to richer, barrel-fermented versions. Supporting white varieties are Bical, Cercial, Malvasia Fina, Rabo de Ovelha and Verdelho.
This tiny, granitic region is tucked between the north-west corner of the Dão region and the southern tip of the Vinho Verde region. Style-wise, the wines are more like Vinho Verde, with high acidity a distinguishing feature. Arinto, Cerceal, Dona Branca, Esgana Cão and Rabo de Ovelha are the white grapes, with Amaral and Jaen dominating the reds.
In the western part of the Beiras, between the mountainous Dão region and the surf-washed Atlantic beaches, Bairrada has a mild, maritime climate with abundant rainfall.
Although much of the Bairrada region is hilly, the majority of the vineyards are on flatter land. Vineyards are often divided into a multitude of small plots. There are two main types of soil: clay-limestone and sandy, each influencing style of wine.
This is a very important area for sparkling wines. Base wines for sparkling wines need the kind of high acidity that the cool Bairrada climate delivers. Sparkling Bairrada wines may have the fragrance of the Maria Gomes grapes (also known as Fernão Pires), or they may be more steely, based perhaps on Arinto, Bical and Cercial, sometimes with some Chardonnay. There are also ‘blancs de noirs’ based on quickly-pressed Baga.
Baga is the traditional local red grape. It makes tannic wines that can have high acidity if under-ripe, but if ripened and handled well the Baga can give rich, dense fruity reds that age into elegant wines of great complexity.
Since 2003, a multiplicity of other grapes has been permitted in DOC Bairrada wines – national grapes such as Touriga Nacional and Alfrocheiro as well as the international likes of Cabernet Sauvignon, Pinot Noir, Syrah and Merlot.
Red Bairrada these days comes in a bewildering array of styles. Predominant amongst white grapes is the fragrant Maria Gomes, while Arinto, Bical, Cercial e Rabo de Ovelha can be made into steely, long-lived whites.
These high, granite uplands over by the Spanish border include some of Portugal's highest and most impressive mountains.
The climate is seriously continental, hot and dry in summer, but with very cold, long winters. In the summer and autumn heat, alcohol levels can shoot up before tannins are fully ripened, but with care and skill, good, balanced wines can be made.
Ripening is easier in the southern sub-region, Cova da Beira, whose exclusive local white grape, Fonte Cal, can make rich, honeyed wines with steely acidity. Other white varieties include Arinto, Malvasia Fina, Rabo de Ovelha and Síria.
The main red varieties are Bastardo, Marufo, Rufete, Tinta Roriz and Touriga Nacional. Many vines are old – a plus for quality, meaning small yields and potentially greater concentration in the grapes.
West and north of the city of Lisbon, the Lisboa wine region was until recently known as Estremadura. A lot of wine is made here, much of it in co-operatives, in a very wide variety of styles and qualities. This region where the "vinho regional" Lisboa is predominant also has nine DOC.
Lisboa is a long, thin region running up beside the Atlantic. Wind is inevitably a strong feature beside the coast – no wonder that these undulating hills bristle with windmills, and no wonder that coastal vines are wind-stressed and hard pressed to ripen their grapes. Just a little way inland, however, a backbone of hill and mountain ranges offers some protection to many eastern parts of the Lisboa region.
A number of the top wine estates of Lisboa are in or around the DOC region of Alenquer, tucked in to the east of the Serra de Montejunto, and therefore a little warmer, a little less windy and wet. Grapes can ripen well, and red wines especially can be top class.
DOC Arruda likewise is protected behind hills, just to the south of Alenquer. These two DOCs, along with DOC Torres Vedras (to the cooler, windier east of Alenquer), relaxed their grape restrictions in 2002 to allow some new national and international grapes including Cabernet Sauvignon, Touriga Franca, Syrah, Sauvignon Blanc and Chardonnay.
Just south again, between Arruda and the city of Lisbon, is the small but high-quality white wine region of Bucelas, with sheltering hills to the west and the wide, nearly land-locked estuary of the Tagus to the east. DOC Bucelas is a fresh, crisp, dry, mineral white, made with a minimum of 75 per cent Arinto, sometimes with Rabo de Ovelha and Sercial. There is also sparkling Bucelas.
A gap in the hills on a level with the Peniche Peninsula and the town of Óbidos means that the DOC Óbidos, region in the centre-east of VR Lisboa is windy and cool. These are ideal conditions for growing grapes for sparkling wines, and indeed some of Portugal’s best sparkling wines come from Óbidos. The DOC of Lourinhã, between the Óbidos wine region and the ocean, is cooler and windier still, and this DOC, whose grapes ripen with difficulty, is therefore restricted to brandies.
The largest DOC region within the VR Lisboa area, up in the north, on the western slopes and hills of the Candeiros and Aire mountains. This is scenic, limestone country, clothed with orchards and olive groves as well as vines. It is possible to make good, rich reds and modern whites, but some traditionally-made wines here are low in alcohol, high in acidity, known as DOC Encostas de Aire.
Very little wine is made nowadays in the DOC Colares and Carcavelos, two once- famous wine regions by the coast, out west from Lisbon. This is prime beach and residential country, where there are many more lucrative uses of land than growing grapes.
Carcavelos, just west of the capital, makes tiny quantities of fortified wine that is nearly always sweet, from red or white local grapes. Colares, neighbouring the great surfing beach of Guincho, makes high-acid, tannic wines from red Ramisco grapes, planted in sand dunes, and gently aromatic whites based on Malvasia.
For the Lisboa region as a whole, the main traditional white varieties are Arinto, Fernão Pires, Malvasia, Seara-Nova and Vital, and for reds Alicante Bouschet, Aragonez, Castelão, Tinta Miúda, Touriga Franca, Touriga Nacional and Trincadeira, but many other national and foreign grapes are now used for VR wines and certain DOC wines.
The Tejo region is located in the very heart of Portugal, a short drive from the capital city of Lisbon. Pulsing with a rich heritage, Tejo claims a bounty of historical treasures scanning the pages of time, from Roman ruins and Gothic castles, to Manueline monasteries and medieval hilltop villages. To the Portuguese, Tejo is known as the land of vineyards, olive groves, cork forests, Mertolengo cattle, and the famous Lusitano horses.
Viticulture has deep roots in Tejo and it is heralded as one of the oldest wine producing regions in the country. Vineyards have graced the banks of the Tejo River (Tagus in English) since Roman times, and the influence of past grape-growing cultures is evident in the many architectural relics dotting the landscape.
Formerly known as Ribatejo, since 2009 the region has now simply been called Tejo, a tribute to the river that has defined its landscape, climate and economy for centuries. The river can also be credited for shaping the distinct Tejo terroirs, making the surrounding plains and riverbanks an ideal terrain to cultivate Portugal’s native grapes.
TEJO WINES AND THEIR CHARACTERISTICS
With a focus on quality and balance, the wines of Tejo are some of the most vibrant and affordable produced in Portugal today, offering a diverse array of styles appealing to all tastes and budgets.
Tejo’s native red grapes include the bold Touriga Nacional—Portugal’s most famous varietal—as well as Trincadeira, Castelão and Aragonês. The aromatic Fernão Pires and the lively Arinto produce some of the region’s most refreshing white wines. These indigenous grapes thrive in the Tejo region’s warm climate and complex soils, while retaining high natural acidity, to produce balanced wines with bright fruit characteristics.
Sharing the land with ancient villages, olive groves and cork forests, the Tejo wineries – each with its own unique story and style – are united by a common goal to produce high-quality wines expressive of the land on which the grapes are grown. The resulting wines embody the enthusiasm, commitment and collaborative nature of an impassioned Portuguese people who believe in the very special terroir that defines the Tejo region.
Among the region’s unique and distinctive traditions are foot-treading (crushing and stomping grapes underfoot); community harvest (local women hand-plucking ripe fruit while singing traditional folk songs); and usage of traditional cork closures (using native, natural and sustainable Portuguese cork from the region’s 30,000 acres of cork trees).
The terroir of the region is deeply defined by the very nature of the Tejo River. The river`s breadth and strength elementally impacts the soil and climate of the region, producing three distinct wine-producing zones: Bairro, Charneca and Campo.
The Bairro area is located north of the Tejo River. These highlands are comprised of rolling hills and sweeping plains rich with limestone and clay soils. Further north, patches of earth contain schist deposits, encouraging the vines to establish deeper roots.
Charneca To the south of the Tejo, is the Charneca zone. The Charneca is a dry, flat area marked by poor, sandy soils that force the vines to struggle, and in turn produce more complex fruit. In this zone, higher temperatures compel the grapes to mature faster than in the rest of the Tejo region.
The Campo lies along the very edges of the Tejo riverbanks. The proximity to the river lends to a more maritime climate, moderating the temperatures and helping to contribute to the fruitiness, acidity and freshness in the wines. The alluvial soils of these plains provide good drainage and sustain the many vineyards located here.
THE GRAPES OF TEJO
The region’s passionate wine producers are renewing their focus on quality and balance by combining experimentation, investment in modern equipment, a commitment to lowering yields and the cultivation of terroir-specific grapes. Old World heritage is being combined with fresh, forward-thinking approaches to wine production. The results are wines that appeal to modern-day wine sensibilities and enjoyment.
Tejo wines are some of the most vibrant and affordable emerging from Portugal today, and offer a diverse array of styles that appeal to a variety of tastes and budgets.
Tejo’s native red grapes include the bold Touriga Nacional, Portugal’s most famous varietal, as well as Trincadeira, Castelão and Aragonês.
The aromatic Fernão Pires and the lively Arinto, as well as Alvarinho and Verdelho, produce some of the region’s most refreshing white wines.
The region’s indigenous grapes thrive in Tejo’s warm climate and complex soils, while retaining their high natural acidity, producing balanced wines with bright fruit characteristics.
The Setúbal Peninsula lies across the estuary of the River Tagus directly south of Lisbon, and linked to Lisbon by two bridges.
The wine region Península de Setúbal also includes a large coastal chunk of the administrative region (as opposed to the wine region) of Alentejo.
Much of the area is flat and sandy, with the exception of the Serra da Arrábida, a short chain of mountains running along the south coast of the peninsula, where the soils are limestone or clay-limestone. It is on these Serra da Arrábida slopes that the grapes are grown for the famous sweet Moscatel de Setúbal wines.
The climate is Mediterranean, with hot, dry summers and mild but rainy winters. Vineyards in the Serra da Arrábida are cooler, owing to the higher altitude and the proximity of the sea.
The Vinho Regional was recently renamed Península de Setúbal. (it was formerly called ‘Terras do Sado’ after the River Sado that flows through the southern part of the region). There are two DOCs, Setúbal and Palmela. Setúbal is sweet and fortified, made primarily from the Muscat of Alexandria grape. It can be labelled Moscatel de Setúbal when Muscat makes up more than 85 per cent of the blend.
It’s a very sweet, fragrant wine, with candied orange flavours, floral and raisiny when young, developing nutty, toffeed aromas with maturity. Moscatel Roxo (a pink grape) makes wines that are even more scented. DOC Palmela is mainly red, and based on the late-ripening Castelão grape, which is more at home in the hot, sandy soils of Palmela than anywhere else in Portugal, ripening well to make wines of complexity and depth, elegance an balance, with good cherry fruit.
The Alentejo region covers about a third of Portugal, and winemakers in the remaining two-thirds can often be heard to complain about the popularity of Alentejo wines.
The reds, easy drinkers, rich and fruity, are the darlings of Lisbon cafés and restaurants, also to be found on wine lists the length of the country. There are quaffing wines, but also fine wines, especially in the red department. Whites are more difficult in this hot climate, but some very good ones are made, given the right place, and/or appropriate skill in vineyards and cellar.
It’s a short drive up from the cool of the Algarve, over the hills and into the hot southern part of the Alentejo (or seriously cold, should it be winter). Most of the Alentejo consists of undulating plains and gentle hills, with serious mountains only in the north east, where, near the town of Portalegre, the São Mamede mountain range rises up by the border with Spain, and the air becomes cooler and the countryside greener. Soils vary greatly: schist, pink marble, granite, limestone, often laid upon a sub-layer of water-retaining clay.
DOP Alentejo has eight sub-regions that together cover about a fifth of the Vinho Regional Alentejano region, but these are rarely seen a label. It makes sense to take advantage of the name Alentejo (or Vinho Regional Alentejano). Seven of the sub-regions are clustered fairly centrally. Portalegre lies well to the north east on the granite foothills of the São Mamede mountains, where higher rainfall and cooler temperatures especially at night, along with many old vines, gives complexity and freshness.
Borba, Évora, Redondo and Reguengos are more typical of the Alentejo, and can make smooth, harmonious, very easy-drinking reds. Conditions are more challenging in Granja-Amareleja, Moura and Vidigueira, with poor, limestone-based soils and a significantly hotter climate. Nonetheless, a new generation of producers, particularly around Vidigueira, has shown the potential of these southern parts of the Alentejo.
The white Antão Vaz is the star grape of the region, with good acidity and tropical fruit flavours. It also responds well to barrel-fermentation. Arinto and Roupeiro also offer precious acidity; white Diagalves, Manteúdo, Perrum and Rabo de Ovelha make up the blends. Aragonez (Tempranillo) is the most widely-planted red grape. The red-fleshed French grape Alicante Bouschet is often the inky, treacley backbone of red blends. Alfrocheiro, Castelão and Trincadeira also have valuable parts to play, with Moreto, Tinta Caiada and Tinta Grossa padding out some blends.
However, many of the new generation of Alentejo reds incorporate imported grapes such as Syrah and Cabernet Sauvignon, made as Vinho Regional.
Vines love Portugal's southernmost region for the same reason the tourists do - it's never too hot, never too cold, and they can be sure to enjoy more than 3,000 hours of sunshine every year.
The ‘border’ with the Alentejo region to the north is a mere 20 or 30 miles from the Algarve coast, yet the Algarve suffers none of the Alentejo’s extremes of temperature. Why? A beautiful chain of mountains running all the way between the Spanish border and the Atlantic coast separates the two regions and blocks the hot, dry winds from the north, leaving the Algarve under the moderating influence of the sea – the Mediterranean to the south, the Atlantic Ocean to the west.
East of Faro out towards Spain the climate is warmly Mediterranean, whilst west of Faro the Atlantic makes itself felt in a more temperate climate, fresher and more humid.
The soils in the Algarve are very varied: sandy, clay, limestone, sandstone, sometimes very shallow over rock, with some rare areas of schist on the mountainous slopes in the north.
Anyone who has holidayed in the Algarve will recognise the the major towns that lend their names to the region’s four wine DOCs: Lagos, Portimão, Lagoa and Tavira.
For these traditional wines, the main white grapes are Arinto, Malvasia Fina, Manteúdo and Síria, and for the reds Castelão and Negra Mole. However, the new wine estates are making mainly Vinho Regional Algarve from national and international grapes: Touriga Nacional and Syrah, Aragonez and Cabernet Sauvignon, Trincadeira, Alvarinho, Chardonnay, Viognier... New estates and wineries are springing up in the Algarve – this is a region to watch.
Few would dispute that the Touriga Nacional is Portugal's finest red grape variety, deserving a place right up at the top of the world league of grapes, along with the likes of Pinot Noir, Cabernet Sauvignon and Nebbiolo. Though Northern in origin, it has spread right across the country - you will find it down south in the Algarve and the Alentejo, out west in the Ribatejo/Tejo and Setúbal regions, successfully competing with the local Baga grape in Bairrada, and way out mid-Atlantic in the Azores. Touriga Nacional is a thick-skinned grape, and those skins are rich in colour and tannins, giving excellent structure and ageing capicity. But it also has wonderful, intense flavours, at the same time floral and fruity - ripe blackcurrants, raspberries - with complex hints also of herbs and liquorice. Yields are never high. The Dão and Douro regions both claim to be the origin of this fine grape, and the rest of the winemaking world is beginning to wake up to its quality.
Jaen shows at its best in the Dão region, and that's where most of it is grown. The vines are vigorous, prone to mildew and botrytis infection, and the grapes ripen early, providing low acidity and poor colour. At worst its wines are watery and acidic, at best highly perfumed, reminiscent of blackberry, blueberry and cherry. Despite a slightly rustic character, it can make early-drinking, soft, silky reds that are simple yet seductive.
Quinta do Regueiro Espumante
Nota de prova:
bolha fina e persistente. aroma frutado ,equilíbrio entre a acidez e o álcool notável. sabor fresco e persistente.